TRAINING MODULE FOR PILOTS
“Training is not an expense, but instead is an investment in the human capital of employees.”
The two major types of training – initial and recurrent
training should be carried out systematically, which means that its design, planning and implementation meet predefined needs. Systematic training, in its simplest way, can be described in four stages:
1. Identification of training needs
2. Determination of training method
3. Implementation of training, carried out by specialist trainers
4. Training evaluation
Training development starts with carrying out a needs analysis. It assesses the required extent of training based on skills and knowledge needed for pilots.
Training methods and design are established according to the needs analysis. Determining training goals is of utmost importance as otherwise an evaluation of training outcomes will not be possible. After the setting of training goals, the training method comes into focus. Training could either be carried out in-house or it could be outsourced. On the one hand, in-house training transfers exactly those contents needed by the firm, but on the other hand, outsourcing may lead to an enhancement of expertise, as external experts are consulted. however, outsourcing often leads to a more generic teaching style resulting in a loss of appropriability. The last step is to decide on training design or technique. The determination of skill and knowledge enhancements as a result of training as training evaluation. Important is the degree of training transfer, so the scope of application of knowledge gained in training to the job. . However, training evaluation is difficult as it is time consuming and involves high costs. The effect of training is determined by several factors, including pre-training motivation. Pre-training motivation includes personal expectations and attitudes which might be influencers for the readiness to learn and be trained. Training design also plays a crucial role in the outcome of transfer of training, as relevant content is a prerequisite for effectiveness. If the content of training is in line with tasks on the job, the possibility of training success will be enhanced.
Training includes three phases – pre-training, during training and post-training stage. The relevance of pre-training motivation has 25 been discussed already, but the other stages must not be neglected. The delivery of training is crucial for its potential success. Goals should be set in accordance to the topic and time for practice enabled during the training. In the post-training stage employees should be encouraged to transfer the content of training on the job. Conducting training should result in benefits and positive outcomes, such as enhanced effectiveness and efficiency of individuals and the company.
Teams require special forms of training, as other competencies are needed than when working individually. A team consists of at least two people, each having a specific role to perform to reach a shared goal. The acquisition of skills in a group, constituted of team members, is termed team training. It is of importance that teams are used to function as a group and work together. Decisions are made as team and communication is necessary to succeed. Team members must be willing to work together and have to be aware of each other´s role to succeed. Team competencies have to be developed including
· Skills related to teamwork
· Attitudes related to teamwork
· Knowledge related to teamwork
Team knowledge improves coordination and performance within a team. Required skills and behaviors as well as goals should be clear for team members to be 26 successful. Positive attitudes towards teamwork and trust affect the degree of team success. Various types of team training exist, like cross training and team coordination training. Cross training, like positional rotation, can foster consciousness for positions held by other team members and associated reliabilities and enhance team success. One type of team coordination training is CRM training
Cabin crew training:
“Crew training and safety have a strong cause and effect relationship”. This statement refers to the fact that human factors are often the root of incidences, but can be greatly influenced and enhanced by training.
Five competency domains are important for cabin crew:
· Interpersonal skills
· Knowledge of foreign languages and cultures
· Sophisticated task handling and skills
· Company loyalty and customer oriented skills
· Physical attributes
Training of cabin crew is often neglected in favor of flight crew training. However, the importance of cabin crew training is important as their own safety and the safety of passengers depends on skills and knowledge learned.
Training is seen as means to prevent accidents and although the amount of accidents in the aviation industry is comparably low, airlines have to continually strive for the highest safety standards to decrease the rate.
Following is the necessary training required to be given:
· Crew communication
· Responsibilities and discipline
· Survival training
· Smoke and fire training
· Water survival
· First aid and other medical aspects
· Handling of passenger
Crew resource management:
CRM training is a form of team training, focusing on team coordination and decision making. Non-technical skills, which can be defined as “cognitive, social and personal resource skills that complement technical skills”, should be enhanced to foster performance efficiency. Improved problem-solving skills, coordination, planning and communication within a team are results of team training. CRM training is the best training method to achieve improvements in team effectiveness and communication. The ultimate goal is to increase aviation safety. This type of training is usually conducted using sophisticated flight simulators, and it addresses communication, teamwork, decision-making, and awareness with respect to accidents, incidents and the role played by human error.
Line oriented flight training:
Line oriented flight training (LOFT) is one of the most effective modes of training in the aviation industry. With the assistance of simulated scenarios crew performance should be tested. Flights from A to B are simulated, creating realistic flight scenarios, in which crew members can train their skills and knowledge. Crew coordination, decision making and leadership are trained during LOFT. As no single individuals, but a complete crew is trained, participants have the opportunity to experience the importance of team decisions and communication.
Initial training is conducted for persons who have no prior experience as cabin crew member. It includes specific position and aircraft type training and should clarify basic concepts, standards and procedures.
Type of training
Athrill Airlines Inc. USA
Each cabin crew member has to undergo an extensive initial training course before starting operations. Table above highlights the duration of initial training of several airlines. Training courses last three to eight weeks resulting in a rather high difference in time span. More days are dedicated towards emergency training than service training. First aid is a fixed component of initial training.
Recurrent training is a periodic training which takes place for cabin crew members who have already received initial training and worked in their position for a certain time period. The ability and efficiency to react in emergency situations needs to be taught and constantly trained. Qualitative and relevant contents, frequently trained, are the main components of recurrent trainings.
Athrill Airlines Inc.
Their would be four teams which reflect the typical activities of an airline in case of a crisis:
Telephone enquiry center service team: communication of true information
· Passenger team: support of passengers, relatives, persons involved
· Relief team: support of concerned stations
· Logistic team: execution of administrative activities
Training should also includes all kind of safety measures that could be needed to perform in some unexpected situation . For eg. The effects of occurrences such as 9/11 and more recent events like terrorism and other safety hazards on training should be discussed. Changes in travel behavior, such as increased passenger volumes, and possible language barriers pose a challenge to airlines.
Evaluation of training :
ANALYZING LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS:
Any time we deliver training to the team, we need to know how effective it's been. Are we putting their learning into practice? And, is it positively impacting their role and the wider organization? It is necessary to objectively analyze the impact of training, to work out how well your team members learned, and to improve their learning in the future.
To check the effectiveness of the training there are four ways of evaluation which include ; Reaction, learning, behviour , result.
LEVEL 1- Reaction:
You want people to feel that training is valuable. Measuring how engaged they were, how actively they contributed, and how they reacted to the training helps you to understand how well they received it.
Questions to ask trainees include:
· Did you feel that the training was worth your time?
· Did you think that it was successful?
· What were the biggest strengths and weaknesses of the training?
· Did you like the venue and presentation style?
· Did the training session accommodate your personal ?
· Were the training activities engaging?
· What are the three most important things that you learned from this training?
· From what you learned, what do you plan to apply in your job?
· What support might you need to apply what you learned?
By doing a survey or by observing trainees reactions we would get an idea about how much it was helpful.
LEVEL 2- Learning:
It focuses on measuring what your trainees have and haven't learned. It also measures what they think they'll be able to do differently as a result, how confident they are that they can do it, and how motivated they are to make changes. This demonstrates how training has developed their skills, attitudes and knowledge, as well as their confidence and commitment. When the training is finished, test your trainees a second time to measure what they have learned, or measure their learning with interviews or verbal assessments.
LEVEL 3- Behavior:
This level helps you to understand how well people apply their training. It can also reveal where people might need help. But behavior can only change when conditions are favorable. Imagine that you're assessing your team members after a training session. You can see little change, and you conclude that they learned nothing, and that the training was ineffective.
It's possible, however, that they actually learned a lot, but that the organizational or team culture obstructs behavioral change. Perhaps existing processes mean that there's little scope to apply new thinking, for example. As a result, your people don't feel confident in applying new knowledge, or see few opportunities to do so. Or, they may not have had enough time to put it into practice.
Effectively measuring behavior is a longer-term process that should take place over weeks or months following the initial training. Questions to ask include:
· Did the trainees put any of their learning to use?
· Are trainees able to teach their new knowledge, skills or attitudes to other people?
· Are trainees aware that they've changed their behavior?
One of the best ways to measure behavior is to conduct observations and interviews. Another is to integrate the use of new skills into the tasks that you set your team, so that people have the chance to demonstrate what they know.
Level 4- Result:
At this level, you analyze the final results of the training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have decided are good for business and good for your team members, and which demonstrate a good return on investment (ROI)
This report is prepared by Komal Agrawal - director training and yazhini - chief pilot
Athrill Airlines Inc. USA
Athrill Airlines Inc. USA
Note : This is just an Aviation Fictional Corporate Game not a Real One . As an MBA students Interns are playing different Roles Play.